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Get this from a library! Heritage in the context of globalization: Europe and the Americas. [Peter F Biehl; Christopher Prescott; Society for American Archaeology.
Table of contents

Davos 2019 - Shaping Globalization 4.0

Awareness and Orientation. Rising Standards. Open Minds and Borders. One of the reasons why we were thrilled to join the Global Network earlier this year is because we want to recommit, publicly, to these free flows. More Benefit Than Harm. Exporting Intellectual Property. The absence of the U.

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Caribbean Crucible: History, Culture, and Globalization

What Is the Future of Globalization? Global Network Faculty. Related Links. SpringerBriefs in archaeological heritage management. Introduction -- pt. Traditions and legal regulations of heritage and its management -- pt. Teaching of cultural heritage -- pt. The future of cultural heritage in a globalized and digitized world -- pt. Contact University of Toronto Libraries St. Connect with us Twitter YouTube Instagram more social media. Your Name:. Include PDF. Record Title:. Record Author s :. Is there a problem with an e-resource?

The non-participation of the Khmer Rouge in the elections fueled the fears that the guerrillas planned a division of the country. However, their political strength was much less than generally expected. They had become "rebels without a cause" Theyer The turnout of the voters, on the other hand, was much larger than expected and was a triumph for the UN.

The operation gave an opportunity for Japan to participate in a large international operation, probably indicating a more far-going security interest in the region. For Cambodia several question marks remain, above all the question of how the Khmer Rouge may rejoin the national community and on what conditions. Only when this problem has found a solution, is it possible to talk about real conflict resolution. So far this is rather a case of multilateral conflict management with a strong regional component.

Cambodia has strongly declared its intention to become a member of ASEAN, and this co-optation which can be compared to the inclusion of Greece, Spain and Portugal in the EEC is also seen by the regional organization as a stabilizing measure. Towards Regional Cohesion? East Asia and South-East Asia are, due to economic linkages, becoming hard to separate from each other, and will be even more converging in the future, as countries such as Malaysia and Thailand apart from Singapore, which is already known as an NIC are more or less successfully trying to apply the NIC strategy. Thus, the Asian core of the Pacific rim, east and south-east, will probably follow its own economic course.

The latter subregion has been under Communist rule, with Viet Nam exercising subregional hegemony.

Heritage In The Context Of Globalization Europe And The Americas 2013

This role is now played down at the same time as market-oriented economic policies doimoi are implemented. This threat was a crucial factor behind the relative cohesiveness of the organization in the Cold War era. The source of common cause and identity was thus partly an external threat, and there were few incentives for economic cooperation.

The planned tariff slopes of the different countries differ according to starting point and speed, which complicates the competitive situation in the intraregional trade of the constituent countries. The more protectionist countries will probably use AFTA to dump into more open economies. Many therefore doubt that this free trade zone will be realized. ASEAN countries are direct competitors in many areas and it will take a long time for them to develop into complementary economies.

From the very beginning ASEAN was a political, rather than economic, organization Yamakage , and now the political preconditions have changed. In fact there are strong inter-state, as well as intra-state, tensions in the two subregions. The latter can be exemplified by ethnic tensions Malaysia, the Philippines and the former by old territorial disputes Indonesia vs. Malaysia , as well as contrasting views on regional security Singapore vs. Indonesia and Malaysia. As in Europe, the dismantling of the Cold War system will change the pattern of conflict rather than eliminate the conflicts.

We can therefore expect more relaxation between the two subregions, but more conflicts within them. Ad hoc consultations may no longer be sufficient Leifer The countries in ASEAN could be described as capitalist in economic terms and conservative in political terms, although, for instance, Singapore and Indonesia differ significantly in their economic policies. The organization assumed importance as a regional organization only after , when there were increasing political uncertainties in the region. The economic integration that has taken place so far is rather modest, and the figure for intraregional trade is only about 20 per cent.

The external dependence on Japan is felt to be problematic. The national economies are outward oriented, and the political systems are formally democratic or semi-democratic but in practice more or less authoritarian. The Confucian model has a strong impact on this region as well, so authoritarianism in fact constitutes the homogenizing political factor.

Problems in the international market usually reinforce domestic authoritarianism due to the strong two-way causal relationship between economic growth and political stability. Economic growth and redistribution are a pre-condition for ethnic peace, political stability a precondition for the economic confidence expressed by international capital towards the region.

Australia and New Zealand, although geographically distant from Europe, have European, and particularly British, origins. Under the impact of successive immigrations, the European heritage is becoming less distinctive. Economically, they are becoming part of Asia and dependent on Japan. Sixty per cent of exports now go to Asia. The leaders are, consequently, promoting a republican Australia less attached to Britain and more involved in Asia, but this involvement obviously has its limits. The term "open regionalism" is often used for regional trade arrangements that do not hurt third parties.

The Australian attitude to Europe is becoming increasingly negative. Similarly, New Zealand is one of the major victims of European agricultural protectionism. According to a World Bank report Sustaining Rapid Development East Asia can strengthen regional integration through trade liberalization and promotion of foreign direct investment within the framework of the multilateral trading system.

Globalization and Transformation in Central European Countries: The Case of Poland

A more comprehensive alternative is thus the member-strong forum for Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation APEC , which was set up in with regional and interregional trade expansion as its main goal. Similar to the "Atlantic project" in Europe, it is a trans-regional network providing a bridge for the USA in the area, and therefore supported by US-oriented regimes and opposed by spokesmen for a genuinely Asian regionalism. Again we meet the two distinct understandings of regionalism: 1 a way of managing multilateralism and 2 a challenge to multilateralism.

So far, the first conception predominates in Asia-Pacific. The idea of any kind of more introverted regionalism is thus very controversial in a region extremely dependent on unhindered world trade, and the debate is carried out merely in terms of an "insurance policy" FEER, 25 July Conclusion In order to test the argument that there is a worldwide process of regionalization taking the shape of a new regionalism, it might have been simpler to choose another example than Asia-Pacific.

East Asian regionalism is often described as de facto regionalism, whereas regionalization is supposed to take place de jure in Europe and North America. This contrast may be due to differences in political culture, but an alternative explanation could lie in the fact that the inter-state relations in East Asia are rather tense and unsettled albeit not openly hostile. Thus a growing maturity of the regional security complex may lead to a more formal regionalism, just as the normalization of the relations among the countries in South-East Asia has been accompanied by a more formal and predictable regional arrangement than presently seems to be possible in East Asia.

This having been said, it is obvious that on other levels than the inter-state level, there has been an impressive process of regionalization. The future of the region is either very black - in case the potential conflicts are translated into war - or very bright - if the degree of interdependence proves to be a point of convergence of interests where every state gets a stake in stable peace. In some of the South-East Asian states this condition must apply also to various domestic groups, a condition which makes the optimistic scenario somewhat unrealistic. Quite a few states may, due to domestic problems, have fewer resources to devote to regional cooperation in the future. The two giants China and Japan face different problems but the problems as such cannot be easily dismissed. China is an old empire becoming a modern region-state, but the level of regionness is far from sufficient to maintain a central legitimate authority throughout the region i.

In the case of Japan there is also a lack of clear perception of regional policy, not because of isolation but too much dependence on one of the former superpowers. Thus there is not only a lack of formal regionalism which is less serious , but a lack of policy makers with region-wide authority, i.

In spite of that there are many reasons, particularly in the areas of development and conflict management, to believe that the global process of regionalization will have a deep impact also on East Asia and South-East Asia in the future. Their strategy in the s will probably be betting on the domestic market, preferably a regional market. The regional framework is still, however, in a flux.

This paper is based on a lecture held at the Shonan Global Seminar and outlines a theoretical and conceptual framework for the comparative analysis of the new wave of regionalism, here called "the new regionalism", and applies this framework to the case of East Asia. References Acharya, A.

chapter and author info

Journal of Peace Research 29, no. Buzan, Barry. Leifer, Michael. In the International Herald Tribune , 13 August Palmer, N.